ترجمه زبان انگلیسی

ترجمه زبان انگلیسی

زبان انگلیسی و اصول روش ترجمه

  What is Ghazal?

 Ghazal is a love poem, consisting of five to fifteen baits or lines. Each line consists of two halves. In the first line, the two halves rhyme, and the same rhyme is repeated throughout the poem in the second half of each verse. The concluding line nearly always incorporates the name of the poet, who is referred to in the third person.

  What is Qasida?

  Ode (Qasida) is longer than a sonnet with a panegyric nature. It usually tells the story of an inspiring king or legendary figure and venerates the actions he does. In Ode, like sonnet, each line consists of two halves. In the first line, the two halves rhyme, and the same rhyme is repeated throughout the poem in the second half of each verse. The difference between qasida and ghazal is that in each qasida, one theme is presented and the concluding line does not usually incorporate the name of the poet.
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Textual genre

There are five broad categories of genre.

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Realia (translation)

In foreign language instruction as well as translation, the term realia refers to photos of objects from a country where the target language is spoken, as well as objects from the target culture, which can range from traditional clothes or musical instruments to newspapers or ticket stubs, and the names for those objects such as The Times in English, a term which cannot be translated without further explanation.

The compositional function of realia: 1) it is a detail; 2) it is an important component of the text; 3) a thorough realia; 4) realia as a title


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Translation and the relativity of cultural identities

Translation as a bridging means of communication across language-cultures has a double role to play: it both constructs and deconstructs, or deconstructs and constructs, the national cultural identity of the source and target texts.......

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Cultural identity

Cultural identity is the identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as one is influenced by one's belonging to a group or culture. Cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not synonymous with, identity politics.

There are modern questions of culture that are transferred into questions of identity. Various cultural studies and social theories investigate the cultural identity. In recent decades, a new form of identification has emerged. This new form of identification breaks down the understanding of the individual as a coherent whole subject to a collection of various cultural identifiers. These cultural identifiers examine the condition of the subject from a variety of aspects including: place, gender, race, history, nationality, language, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnicity and aesthetics.

Culture, as a social practice, is not something that individuals possess. Rather, it is a social process in which individuals participate, in the context of changing historical conditions. As a "historical reservoir", culture is an important factor in shaping identity. Some critics of cultural identity argue that the preservation of cultural identity, being based upon difference, is a divisive force in society, and that cosmopolitanism gives individuals a greater sense of shared citizenship. That is not to always be divisive. When considering practical association in international society, states may share an inherent part of their 'make up' that gives common ground, and alternate means of identifying with each other. Examples can be taken from both old and contemporary world order. In the old world order European states shared a high level of cultural homogeneity, due to their common history of "frequently violent relationships, and Greco-Roman cultural origins" (Brown 2001). Brown also argues that the Western invention of the nation-state has proven to be an appealing and homogenizing factor to many cultures

A collective identity refers to individuals' sense of belonging (the identity) to a group (the collective). From the perspective of the individual, the collective identity forms a part of his or her personal identity. Sometimes, the sense of belonging to a particular group will be so strong that it will trump other aspects of the person's personal identity (for example, the person may be willing to assume great risks for the group, even as great as loss of life).

Personal identity may refer to:


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How to Attract Positive Energy and Dispel Negative Energy

Every moment you have a choice – to be at peace or to be in resistance. When you are at peace you attract positive energy and when you resist you create negative vibes that reflect back on your being. It’s a simple choice and yet most people unconsciously choose to live in negativity.

It’s not your boss, colleagues, parents, ex or the traffic, but your own perception that creates stress and negative energy. Circumstances are neutral. You will generate positive vibes when your inner state is one of alignment and congruence, instead of being resistive.

Here are a few tips to attract positive energy by staying in touch with your inner peace and stillness.

Start your day with meditation – Any form of meditation is helpful but it’s best to keep it simple. Just practice the meditation of becoming aware of your presence. You don’t have to sit in any strident posture, just relax and feel your consciousness or presence in the midst of the thoughts and emotions. This is a very powerful practice that creates a positive vibe throughout the body.

Treat everyone the way you want to be treated – A day is easily ruined when you start holding resentment against someone. Know that everything is oneness and though we appear as different forms, everything is the manifestation of the one true essence. When you see others as yourself you will not harbor negative feelings and in turn your attitude will attract positive energy from the people around you.

Let go of your need to control – Life is a flux and its nature is change. The more you resist the more you will suffer. Whenever you try to control a life situation, you will feel stressed out and this will generate a lot of negative energy. Just imagine life to be a raging river, does it serve any purpose to struggle? Wouldn’t it be much more relaxing and peaceful if you just let go and allow yourself to float with the flow? People who stay surrendered and relaxed generate a lot of positive energy and attract the grace of life.

See the positive in every situation – Know that good and bad are just perceptions created in the conditioned mind. In reality every life situation is pure grace and is the manifestation of the one truth – call it god or spirit or energy. When you see every situation with this innocence, it will reveal its grace to you.

Visualize a peaceful life – Your mind might be addicted to negative thinking, most minds are. You will have to consciously break out of this addiction if you want to attract positive energy within you. Stay conscious and see your mind churning out fearful images. Stop thinking these thoughts and focus your attention on visualizing a peaceful flow of life. You will be amazed at the positive vibes you feel in your body.

Stop worrying about the future – Worry has not served any purpose to this date for anyone. Whatever has to happen will happen, there is nothing you will achieve by worrying about it. In fact what you worry about will not even happen most of the times. So why waste energy dwelling on worries? You are unconsciously creating a lot of negative energy inside you which is harmful to your whole being. Just plan practically and leave the rest to life.

Drop the resentment within – The past is past, it has no reality than as a memory trace. Can you live in such simplicity? After all if you don’t continuously think up a bad memory you will not feel any resentment within. So just learn to forgive and move on. There is a lot positive energy in the simple act of forgiveness.

Stay as the presence instead of the ego – While interacting with people try to stay as the conscious presence instead of dwelling in your mind. Be the unconditioned presence, allowing people to talk or interact with you without taking offence or protecting opinions. People will get attracted to your calm nature as it radiates a lot of positive energy.

Look at the nature – If you want to attract positive energy just look at the nature for a while. A tree or a flower, it just rests in stillness and moves with the wind. There is a peace that radiates from their being. This peace will ignite your own inner true nature of stillness.

Feel the spaciousness in your body – Just close your eyes and try to feel your body from within. You will be surprised at the spaciousness of your body. It feels like a lot of empty space with a few sensations here and there. This inner body realization will free up any stored negative energy. After a few moments of inner body realization you will feel light and at ease.

These are some simple techniques to attract positive energy into your being. Remember that staying conscious and dwelling in presence is your true nature, and it’s always peaceful and radiant of positive energy.


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We live in a time of rapid changes, where information travels around the globe within seconds, and where we as ordinary people are influenced by impulses from all over the world. Children and young people from different cultures are influenced by the same rock-stars, whether they live in Nairobi, Tokyo, New York, Buenos Aires or Berlin. We see some of the same channels on TV, we use the same internet, we eat the same fast-food, and we travel from one continent to another more than ever. We live in a global world. We have become internationally conscious to a degree that was unthinkable in previous generations. This globalization affects everybody, also children in kindergartens and schools. Many children are also brought up in a country different from their parents. Home-country.

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What does "realia" mean?

In every language, there are words that, without in any way distinguishing themselves in the original from the verbal co-text, nonetheless they are not easily transmissible into another language through the usual means and demand from the translator a peculiar attitude: some of these pass to the text of the translation in unaltered form (they are transcribed), others may only partially preserve in translation their morphological or phonetic structure, still others must sometimes be substituted for lexical units of a completely different value or even "composed". Among these words, we meet denominations of element of everyday life, of history, of culture etc. of a given people, country, place that do not exist in other peoples, countries and places. Exactly these words have received in translation studies the name of "realia". (1969: 432)


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با سلام خدمت دوستان عزیز

این هم آدرس سایت مجله دانشگاهی "درباره ترجمه":


+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه 6 مهر1389ساعت   توسط مجید رحیمی  | 

I NEVER FORGET A FACE I'll tell you a strange thing about me - I never forget a face. The only trouble is that usually I'm quite unable to tell you the name of the person. I know what you're going to say - you suffer from the same thing yourself. Lots of people do, to some extent. But I'm not like that. When I say I never forget a face, I mean it. I can pass a fellow in the street one day and recognize him again months after, though we've never spoken to each other. My wife says sometimes that I ought to be a reporter for the newspapers and wait about at first nights at cinemas, looking for all the famous people who go to see the films. But, as I tell her, I should not be able to do very well at that. I should see the famous man or woman, but I should not be able to say which one it was. That's my trouble, as I say - names. Of course, this trouble with names has put me in difficulties from time to time. But with a little skill one can usually get out of the difficulty in one way or another. In my work, moving round the City doing bits of business, I have to be very clever not to let a man see that I can't remember whether his name is Smith or Moses. I've annoyed people in that way and lost good business more than once. But on the whole, I think I gain more than I lose by this strange memory of mine. Quite often I've approached a man who didn't know me at all. I've said: "I think we've met before," and I've been able to give him some idea of where it was. I can always connect a face with a place, you see. Well, as I was saying, I can approach this fellow and remind him of a big dinner or a football match or whatever it is that his face reminds me of, and probably within five minutes we're talking about business. I can usually find out his name later on. My memory for faces helps me a lot in business. You can guess that there's not a man, woman or child here in Bardfield that I don't know by sight. I've lived in Bardfield ever since the Second World War. I like the place; although it's only forty minutes from London, there's a lot of country here, village is almost a mile from the station, and that's rather troublesome. But quite a pleasant crowd of men travel up an down to the City most days, and 1 needn't tell you that I know the names of half of them, though we speak to each other cheerfully enough. My wife complains that I don't know the names of our neighbors in the next house, and that's true. Well, on this particular evening I'd been kept a bit late at the office, and it was difficult to get to the station in time to catch the train. There was quite a crowd on the train at first, but the gradually got out; and by the time we reached Ellingham - that's two stations before mine - there were only two of us left in the carriage. The other fellow wasn't one of the regular travelers but I knew he was a Bardfield man. I knew it as soon as I saw him of course. I'd smiled at him when I saw him get into the carriage in London, and he had smiled back. But that didn't tell me his name. The annoying thing was that I couldn't remember where I knew this fellow's face from, if you understand what I mean. His face told me clearly that he was connected with Bardfield, but that was all it told me. 1 could not think where in Bardfield I had seen it. 1 guessed he must be one of those fellows who've come to live lately in the small houses by the bus-stop, but I couldn't be sure. Some of us who've lived in the place for a long time are rather unfriendly towards newcomers, but that's not my way - never has been. I never know where the next bit of business is going to come from, and it may come from one of them. I can't afford to neglect chances. So when the two of us found ourselves alone in the carriage, with room to stretch our legs and be a bit comfortable, I started to talk, just as if we were old friends. But I can't say that I got much information out of him. He spoke well, with a quiet friendly manner, but he told me very little. 1 can generally find out what a man's work is in ten and a half minutes - that's the time it takes from Ellingham to Bardfield by train - but I failed this time. He looked a bit tired, I remember, as if he'd been working too hard lately, and I thought maybe that made him unwilling to talk much. "Do you generally travel down on this train?" I asked him. That's usually a safe opening to a conversation, because either they do travel or they don't, and nine times out of ten they'll tell you why, and what hours they work, and what their work is. It's only human nature. But he just smiled and shook his head and said, "Not generally," which wasn't much help. Of course, I went on to talk about the train service in general, comparing this train with that, hut still he said nothing. He just agreed with all I said, but he didn't seem to have any opinions ( his own. I told him I sometimes went up to the City by road, bit that didn't make him talk either. I didn't think it would, because you don't expect a fellow who lives in a cheap house to own a car. Well, in the end, I had to give up. I'd told him a lot about myself! of course, so as to make things pleasant. I'd even boasted a little) about a rather nice bit of business I'd done that morning. I'\ always found that there's nothing as good as boasting to start! fellow talking. It makes him want to boast too. He seemed interested in a quiet sort of way, but it was no good. So I stopped talking and started to read my paper. And the next time I looked at him, he'd put his head back and gone off to sleep! We were just coming into the station then, and though the train) stopped rather suddenly, it didn't seem to wake him. Well, I'm a kind-hearted fellow and I wasn't going to let a Bardfield man be (carried on all the way to the next stop if I could help it. So I touched him sharply on the knee. "Wake up, old fellow! We're there!" I said. He awoke at once and smiled at me. "Oh, so we are!" he said, and got out after me. You know what the weather was like just then. When we came out of the station together it was quite dark and raining heavily. There was a wind blowing strong enough to knock you over, and it was bitterly cold. Well, what would you have done? The same as I did. I turned round and said to him:" Listen. There isn't a bus for a quarter of an hour. I've got my car in the station-yard, and if you're in one of those small houses I can take you there. It's on my way." "Thanks very much," he said, and we walked through the water to where my old car was standing and off we went. "This is very kind of you," he said as we started, and that was the last thing he said until we were halfway across the open country. Then he suddenly turned round and said, "You can let me get out here." "What, here?" I asked him. It seemed mad, because there wasn't a house within five hundred yards and, as I say, it was raining and blowing like the end of the world. But I slowed down, as anyone would. The next thing that happened was that something hit me really hard on the back of the head. I fell forwards then everything went black. I can remember being pulled out of the and when I came to my senses aga was lying in the ditch with the rain pouring down on me with a bad headache, no car in sight and my pockets – as I found out later - empty. I pulled myself up at last and somehow managed to walk into Bardfield. I went straight to the police station, of course. It's the first building you reach if you come that way. And there I reported that someone had stolen my car, a new umbrella, a gold watch and a hundred and fifty-two pounds ten shillings in notes. Of course, as soon as I got there I remembered who the man was; His picture was on the wall outside. I'd seen it every day for week. That's why his face reminded me of Bardfield. Under picture were some words: "Wanted for Robbery with Violence and Attempted Murder. John ———" Oh dear, I've forgotten the name again. I just can't keep names in my head. But that's the man. I tell you - I never forget a face.
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